In the past, it was the norm of companies doing unethical marketing by stating false facts and figures, exaggerating the qualities of their products and services, and claiming unverified facts like cigarette smoking gave an active lifestyle (Gupta and Srivastav, 2016).
The eruption of the coronavirus pandemic occurred in 2019 that has majorly affected the economies nationally and globally (Allam, Dey, and Jones, 2020). It has strictly impacted various organisations as they faced varying amounts of losses in the process (Sonobe et al., 2021).
Fair value is regarded as a broad measure of a capital's worth (Bradley and Sun, 2021). According to Palea (2021), the accounting field describes fair value as the assessed value of an organisation’s credit and liabilities within its financial statement.